Marlborough High School was established in 1900, operating from temporary premises owned by the Anglican Church. In 1901 the school moved to purpose built buildings on Stephenson Street where it has operated from since. During the ‘Great Influenza Outbreak’ of 1918-19 the College closed briefly and operated as a second hospital containing influenza wards. In the late twenties a new two-storey block was constructed to house the Intermediate School for Blenheim.
In 1919 the school changed its name from Marlborough High School to Marlborough College, and continued as a co-educational establishment until 1962, when the community voted for single sex education and Marlborough Girls’ College was established on a separate site, adjacent to Bohally Intermediate on McLachlan Street approximately 2 km to the north..
Bohally had been established as a new purpose built intermediate school in 1956. Upon opening, all intermediate students at Marlborough College had been transferred to Bohally. Prior to the establishment of Marlborough Girls College, Marlborough College had over 1242 pupils on its role, making it the third largest secondary school in New Zealand.
Marlborough College on Stephenson Street was renamed Marlborough Boys’ College in 1962.
Marlborough College Old Boys' Association was founded in 1902 and registered as an Incorporated Society on 15th December 1949. It was open to all male pupils of Marlborough College (or Marlborough High School) as it was originally known. Marlborough College Old Boys’ Association has contributed to the college community in many ways over the years and continues to do so.